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From the Archive
The Rugendas Letters:
Johann Moritz Rugendas’
First Voyage to Brazil
1821-1825

The Sections of Cap Trafalgar
The First Prussian Maritime Atlas
 
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500 Years Brazil —
Push forward to Her Explorers

HUMBOLDT

with  the  pen

and

RUGENDAS

with  the  pencil

are

the  two  Europeans,

who  described  America

the  most  lively

D. F. Sarmiento,
Argentinian writer + president of the republic
as contemporary quoted after Diener 1994

 

I  should  and  wanted  to  be

the  illustrator

of  the  continent  newly  discovered  by  Columbus,

I wanted to show the world
what picturesque treasures the tropical world offers
since only few organizations are allowed 
to follow the troublesome career.

I felt called upon to be

the  pilot  of  the  arts

on a field others will then present exhaustingly.

Johann Moriz Rugendas
in his summing-up towards Alexander von Humboldt,

quoted after Carl Albert Regnet in
Münchener Künstlerbilder. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Münchener Kunstschule,
Munich 1871; adopted in
Deutsches Biographisches Archiv, fiche 1066, pp. 224-234.

 

Supplementary from the same source:

“ ‘Already Herder’, Rugendas says in notes that are in the hands of the author,
‘called for to roam the world with the pencil, –
I took this advice almost to literally’. ”

The latter part Hyacinth Holland adopted in ADB only partly literally.

 

Arrangement , Start , End  &  Sequel  of  a  Voyage

 

A  Voyage?

THE  VOYAGE ,  BY  THE  BRAZILIAN

and  South  America  Traveler !

 

JOHANN  MORITZ  RUGENDAS’

First  Voyage

(1821 – 1825)

in  Letters  by  his  Father  and  his  own.

With  details  increasing  the  research  knowledge  about  the
Langsdorff expedition
and  on  Rugendas’  return  itself.

Of  rich  contents  of  humanly  most  beautiful  evidence,  however,

JOHANN  MORIZ’

“ In  the  harbour  of  Gessendorf  (= Geestendorf, part of Bremerhaven)
half  an  hour  from  Bremerlehe  ( Bremerhaven-Lehe )  Dec: 10, 1821 ”

where  the  ship  found  refuge  from  continuous  heaviest  winter  gales

With  provenance  Adalbert  Freiherr  von  Lanna
( 1839 – 1909 )
and  after  90  years  quite  virginal  on  the  market

 

–  all  citations  translated  from  German  –

 

Rugendas, Johann Lorenz II (1775 – Augsburg 1826) + Johann Moritz Rugendas (Augsburg 1802 – Weilheim/Teck 1858). Set of

7  original  letters  +  documents  from  1821-1825
plus  1  later  from  Valpareiso  of  1840,

signed throughout. In-8 to in-2. Totally 10½ pages. In Lanna’s pre-printed (“Druck der Bohemia.”) and completed by hand autograph folder with J W ZANDERS’ typographic + large fleur-de-lis watermarks as part X, no. 62.

Provenance

Adalbert  Frhr.  von  Lanna, Prague

Literature

Pablo Diener + Maria de Fátima Costa
A América de Rugendas / Obras e Documentos (here 1-2 + 4-8)

São Paulo 1999, pp. 34-36 + 40-47 with 3 illustrations.

  1. The Application (August 1821)
  2. The Arrangement of the Contract (September 1821)
  3. The Event-letter from the Storm-intermediate Stop in Bremerhaven (December 1821)
  4. The Report on his Well-being and Imminent Return from Brazil (August 1824)
  5. Memorandum on the Future of Johann Moritz Rugendas (March 1825)
  6. Announcement of his Return until August 1825 (May 1825)
  7. The Sequel “in the Case of von Langsdorf” (December 1825)
  8. An Evidence-greeting from the Second Voyage from Valpareiso (September 1840)

During the first decades of the 19th century over the distance of about a three-month-voyage South America and especially Brazil were a magnet namely for German explorers. And their travels created by themselves the wish for new worlds, inspiring others and finally leading to partly spectacular reports and research results, documented in large plate books. Among the most sensational the Picturesque Voyage in Brazil as the extract of the first travel of 1821-1825 by

Johann  Mori(t)z  Rugendas

published instantaneously in lithography since 1827 ( offer for a copy of the 1986 facsimile edition now out of print on request ) by Engelmann in Paris, the pupil of Senefelder and concluded in 1835 when the artist was already since four years on his second and last, the 16 years “great American voyage” through the south “he undertook on the urge of Alexander von Humboldt. Although equipped with only sparing means, but “relying on his art and his iron will … As though he feels well only under most exhausting hardship which his iron nature endured with a wonderful buoyancy, he was driven by a berserk lust for travelling … The charm of novelty with daily surprises incited him and the bravery to overcome obstacles looking quite not possibly” (Hyacinth Holland in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie).

Such a fascination filled an only 19-year-old as the fifth and last generation of the Augsburg artist’s dynasty of the Rugendas’ spanning two centuries (1666-1858). After a first education at the art academy in Augsburg directed by his father he changed to the Munich academy in 1817 – just in the same year that there Spix and Martius started to their much discussed Brazilian expedition (1817-1820). And after a stay at home Georg Heinrich Frhr. von Langsdorff (Wöllstein, Rhinehessen, 1774 – Freiburg/Breisgau 1852) as Russian Privy Councillor, chargé d’affaires in Brazil, and consul general in Rio de Janeiro (since 1813 according to Diener 1994; Teuscher: Prussian consul general there) not just returned there, but foremost and not least for the organization of German immigration – 90 emigrants were travelling with him – prepared an expedition into the country and thus was looking for – a young “illustrator”! And made a choice the Argentinian writer and president of the republic, D. F. Sarmiento, as contemporary expressed in words:

“ HUMBOLDT  with  the  pen  and  RUGENDAS  with  the  pencil

are

the  two  Europeans

who  described  America  the  most  lively ”

(quoted after Diener 1994).

 

And that’s the starting situation of this

fascinating  autograph  documentation .

The Application

W. F. von Karwinski (“Karw.”, 1780-1855, botanist collecting in Brazil and Mexico) informs the Rugendas about the plans of von Langsdorff and suggests an application. As a result

Johann  Lorenz  Rugendas  as  father  writes  Aug. 25, 1821

to Wilhelm von Langsdorff, the brother, in Lahr:

“ Encouraged by Baron von Carvensky (Karwinsky) at Hurlach … that your brother … is looking for a young artist who shall accompany him on his scientific voyages to Brazil to draw and paint there landscapes as well as animals and plants our son Moritz made the decision …

“ My son Moritz, although only 19 years old, but of strong, large built, able-bodied and of good intellectual gifts, also with an excellent talent for the arts, gifted especially in this field of landscape and animal painting, even already renown in these, and, what is a main point, of an invincible lust for travelling and an idea of higher fame, would enjoy very much to be able and allowed to follow this call.

“ It must be comprehensible … that I just not want to set bounds to his wish, but as a father would like to see this subject as influencing his whole future life being settled with thought … By this I kindly ask under which conditions the master … would engage this young man. At first … I state that such a young artist should be respected and treated as companion, also he should be assured of a payment according to the needs there …

“ Can I then if the matter prospers so far hand over my good and I say not too much talented son without hesitation and with good conscience after settled sure contracts (cf. hereto under Sep. 6, 1821) to a noble man … quite being father to him in the vast (cancelled) wide world, in another climate, among other people, habits and traditions, thus for us parents it would be as a good reassurance that we not hampered the development of our son and that … not the hope shall leave us … to see him please God back under good circumstances.

“ It is … known to me that the Privy Councillor will come to Lahr, thus I will send drawings by my son for a view … J. L. Rugendas (art) professor … ”

2 pages. 9⅜ × 7½ in (23.8 × 19 cm). – In regard to many changes surely the draft offering a deeper view. Nevertheless already with address, salutation, even postscript and 2 smoothed folds. – Upper left numbered (by own hand?) “2”. – On laid paper with typographic and cut figurative watermarks.

The Arrangement of the Contract

Preceding the formal contract the  subsequent  letter  by

Johann  Lorenz  Rugendas  as  father  of  Sep. 6, 1821

to Wilhelm von Langsdorff, the brother, in Lahr:

“ Your … letter I have the honour to answer to the effect that it was … pleasant to me to hear provisionally that the conditions by the Privy Councillor will be of a kind to ensure the living of my son as to my reassurance … (Asks) to clear the subject so we can settle the definitive contract the sooner the better … (Supposing that the subject will also) be settled to the satisfaction of the Privy Councillor preparations for the voyage are already undertaken to get (the passport) from the ministry in perhaps 8-10 days … ”

½ page. 13 × 8⅛ in (33 × 20.7 cm). – Obviously copy for own use with all formalities but kept simple. – On laid tabular paper with watermark I B G. – In the upper margin numbered (by own hand?) as no. 4.

Storm-intermediate Stop in Bremerhaven

The  event  letter  from “Bremerhaven” by

Johann  Moriz  Rugendas  of  Dec. 10, 1821

to his father. It is the beginning of what Moriz decades later summed up towards Alexander von Humboldt:

“ I should and wanted to be

the  illustrator  of  the  continent  newly  discovered  by  Columbus,

“ I wanted to show the world what picturesque treasures the tropical world offers since only few organizations are allowed to follow the troublesome career. I felt called upon to be

the  pilot  of  art

on a field others will then present exhaustingly ”

(quoted after Carl Albert Regnet in Münchener Künstlerbilder. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Münchener Kunstschule, Munich 1871; adopted in Deutsches Biographisches Archiv, fiche 1066, pp. 224-234). And supplementary from the same source:

“ ‘Already Herder’, Rugendas says in notes that are in the hands of the author, ‘called for to roam the world with the pencil, – I took this advice almost to literally’. ”

(The latter part Hyacinth Holland adopted in ADB only partly literally.)

 

“ In the harbour of Gessendorf (sic!), ½ hour from Bremerlehe … Dear father!

“ Still heavy gales and a nasty wind prevent our departure and yet we miss the prospect of a near change, contrary it is generally feared we had to stay here until New Year, nevertheless we can consider ourselves lucky that we did not put to sea since one got news here about

more  than  a  hundred  failed  ships.

“ Two … and a large merchant-man that was catched

without  men , masts  and  animals,
from  the  papers  one  could  see  he  came  from  Buenos  Aires.

“ In front of our eyes we saw

2  ships  running  aground.

“ Since the captain … saw that the weather would not change we entered the harbour 10 days ago (putting to sea from Bremen – cf. Diener, l. c., p. 23/1 -, they had to return) where

we  cabin  passengers  have  less  ennui.

“ We try to spare our time as good as possible. If the weather is clear we (Menetries – the French zoologist E. P. Ménétriès – and myself and the little Langsdorff) let us bring on shore and shoot strand birds, I got a wonderful double-barreled gun for my regular use and under Menetries’ instruction I am already a quite good shot. On rainy weather I give drawing lessons and execute

view  of  Bremen

that I drew with pencil there (cf. the remark on their putting to sea above) in watercolors, or I study Portuguese and French. After lunch

the  mast  is  entered

and generally played chess. After dinner it is read aloud, scientific items by the Privy Councillor himself, conversational items by … . About our future voyage is talked a lot. He and I are looking forward to it immensely, it would give me a pain that still almost a year will pass before we start (?) with it, if I would not know I could fill this time with studies of Brazilian trees. Chiefly the expedition will go to Fire- and Magellan land … both countries are almost not known and traveled into. Brazil we will travel after the provinces and the area of the Amazon River will catch us for the longest time. The Privy Councillor draws insects and plants by himself, Menetries birds, and I have to do larger objects only. The first draws insects very pretty, thus Hörman (surely the Augsburg painter and etcher, renown for his studies of plants and landscapes, but passed away about 1½ years before) & (?) his fec(i)t (?) may be placed on the leafs.

“ As we arrived in the harbour almost all of us were sick, especially 2 days before when

the  ship  laid  completely  on  its  side

… the keel (??) plunged heavily into the water.

“ I  wrote  this  letter  especially  for  the  reason
that  you  not  were  frightened  about  our  fate
first  by  reports  in  the  papers .

“ Me for myself had been always well and I have the best life of the world, one could call it a life of idleness and luxury since what we have to do is of really no importance. Inlaid you receive the drawing of En…, representing the plantation at Mandioca by En…, that you will kindly send in the name of the Privy Councillor to Doctor Spix. Please send me as soon as possible the colors I asked for in my last letter since the stills should have the diameter of a large coin at least, thus forming when filling (?) into the tin box dead areas that remain empty or have to be filled up with wool or … Instead one could put into Vienna pencils upright as for example (following a small sketch; getting the right colors remained a specific problem of the voyage) … Please afford me the pleasure to write as soon as possible so that I get news about yours, the dear mother’s and brother’s and sister’s well-being and life before my departure,

send  your  letter  through  consul  Kulenkamp(ff,
Bremian Hanseatic family)

who will deliver the letters correctly to me. Greet and kiss them a thousand times for me … There is no day I do not think of you dears and I have always hoped to receive letters … Thus please be so good not to linger with a letter and possibly send the colors soon, too. Present my compliments … the grey coat were my steady companion, on deck, in bed, everywhere … Greet my dear Kunz many times, I often wished him to my side, should he change his position, please write it me … Will you, since it is by now sure the war with the Turks (Greek revolt against them) is declared, use the sketches I made before my departure and execute them or what are you working on now? Has not (a letter?) come from Munich, if nothing came only Spix (s. a.) is responsible for the prevention. Though references are not necessary for me in Rio since my boss with whom to be very satisfied I have all reasons (nevertheless the contract was broken up only one year later and led to a judicial sequel, cf. per May 12 and Dec. 8, 1825 including Aug. 9, 1824) promised me to provide for any possible acquaintances. We harmonize very well and the way he treats us is very nice. The Privy Councillor has a lot of enemies mostly from business with … If he is doing right I will not find out, he may very well be provoked a lot and nobody is free of faults. Menetries is a fine educated man with whom I like to deal with, he takes much trouble to make me more acquainted to French and by daily practice I really got more elegance. Baron Draid (?) is the greatest fool and nincompoop I ever met and I wish him to Jericho very much … All papers laugh at him and it really damages the reputation of all of us that he travels with us. The day before we were on a dance

in  the  small  country  town  Bremer  Lehe

where he appeared in great chamberlain dress, he is a …

“ Farewell dear father a thousand greetings to dear mother, Louise … please soon by (news your) loving son Moriz Rugendas. ”

1 page. 12⅛ × 9⅜ in (30.7 × 23.8 cm). – Stamped on the back GEESTENDORF, addressed “Mr. Joh. Lorenz Rugendas Esq., Royal professor at the academy Augsburg”. Sealed with dog signet and sender’s reference to von Langsdorff and with note by his father’s hand “This letter I answered immediately Dec. 20, 1821 through consul Kulenkamp in Bremen. Lorenz Rugendas.” – On the upper side of the recto additionally “In the harbour of Gessendorf ½ hours from Bremerlehe” as being originally intended for oblong writing.

On light laid paper with typographic watermark. – In the white upper margin numbered (by his father’s hand?) No. 31. There additionally small rest of a seal. One little hole without loss of letters as a small marginal loss, too. Smoothed folds, the slight palishness not affecting the good readability. – Illustration

The Report on his Well-being and Imminent Return from Brazil

Reporting on the life of Moritz and his nearing return home

Johann  Lorenz  Rugendas  writes  on  Aug. 9, 1824

to the superior counsellor von Wirschinger in Munich:

“ I feel so free to send your Excellency herewith an illustration of the temple erected Feb. 16th (and in the presence of His Majesty our good King) together with a description, hoping that Your Honour will graciously accept it.

“ The … interest in the fate of my dear good son Your Honour always showed permits me … to send the news that Moritz is fine and well, since May this year on a new scientific travel that shall last 10 months, from Rio into the Brazilian province Mato Grosso, then back over São Paulo (following deletions). Since Mr. v. Langsdorff (cancelled: received Russian funds – according to Diener 1994, p. 24, czar Alexander I had promised to finance the expedition – thus believed) … his … received unpleasant reminders by the circumnavigator Otto v. Kotzebue (landed in Rio on Nov. 2, 1823, surrounded Cape Hoorn and was Jan. 16, 1824, in Talcaguana, Chili) he raised with great efforts the necessary funds and travels in … … the interior. My son, driven by ambition since he was employed once, now goes – I was surprised – also grieved about it, voluntarily and by means mostly acquired by himself along. Clearly he promises to be back in Europe and in our dear country in … 25 and – always his first wish – hopes for a position. The … always shown … lets me … ask to keep my dear good son, this I can name him with gladness …, in good mind in case of a future employment or reservation to it.

“ Director v. Langer (the history painter and academy director Peter v. L. passed away Aug. 6, 1824) has died … ”

Rugendas assured furthermore to fill a position granted before the return of Moritz additionally to his own. – 2 pages. 8¼ × 7 in (20.9 × 17.7 cm). – In regard of many changes surely the draft offering a deeper view, nevertheless with all formalities and two smoothed folds. Upper left numbered (by own hand?) in different ink No. 97. – Two trimmed watermarks.

Memorandum on the Future of Johann Moritz Rugendas

Memorandum “For the conviction of my dear Moritz” by

Johann  Lorenz  Rugendas  from  about  end  of  March  1825

“ that in the attempt to further him best I let nothing out, but failed nevertheless.

“ March 19, 1825 I travelled to Munich for an application for a position of my Moritz (cf. Aug. 9, 1824) to present the subject personally to the local president v. Groven(werth?) and superior counsellor Wirschinger after the submitted applications, but received the notice that Mr. Me(a?)ttenheimer became director and Veit professor and thus despite of the warm proposal of director of construction Mr. Voitz the chicanes and nasty tricks of professor Zim(m)erman(n) went through and I had to accept the insult to see my dear Moritz and myself, too, being set back.

“ Superior counsellor Wirschinger by the way assured me that the moment Moritz would be here he surely would care for his best.
J. Lor. Rugendas / father  ”

1 page. 9 × 7½ in (23 × 18.9 cm). Upper right numbered (by own hand?) No. 112. – On light laid paper with trimmed armorial watermark with complete posthorn. – To “further the best” of Moritz should finally caused the setting back. For by his death in the following year the father caused a new vacancy and Moritz even was at home, his “berserk lust for travelling” (ADB) obviously avoided the chains.

Announcement of his Return until August 1825

After he roved “on his own and under hard experiences and privations of any kind in Brazil for three more years” (ADB)

Johann  Moriz  Rugendas  announces  on  May 12, 1825

from Rio de Janeiro his father the return home:

“ My dear father! / Finally I find the occasion to give you my beloved father and friend evidence of my life and news of my now undoubtedly near return. Since March 29 I am back here after an absence of 11 months (cf. per Aug. 9, 1824) and found your dear letters of Aug., Sept. and 2 Dec. with dear inlays that I have not answered yet because I could not determine the day of departure and do not answer today again since I got too late notice of

the  departure  of  the  Hamburg
on  whose  board  I  will  now  hand  over  these  lines.

“ This leaf therefore only intended to inform you that on May 30 I will put to sea

with  the  Royal  French  brig  Le  Phaon,
Com.  Perceval,

bound for Bahia, from where after a few days I will leave for Brest

on  board  of  the  frigate  la  Bajonneuse

where I hope to enter with God’s help

in  August,

so please send me your news to that place poste restante.

“ I shall write within the 14 days stay here once again and in greater detail with inlay for dear friends … Fare happy and well until the lucky reunion with your son loving and admiring you infinitely

Moriz  Rugendas

soon

 Ex-Brazilian”

2 pages plus address on double leaf. 9⅞ × 7⅞ in (25 × 19.9 cm). – Addressed “A Monsieur / Monsieur J. L. Rugendas / Peintre et Professeur / 32 / Augsbourg” with notice of handling “Hamburg d. 4 August 25 J. l. f. Hagedorn”, stamp HAMBURG Aug. 5 and notice of receipt by his father’s hand: “Received Aug. 11, 1825”. – Upper left numbered (by his father’s hand?) first 116 then 117. – On light Whatman paper of 1822. – Of the broken off seal on the otherwise white address page a trace only. Here also slight loss of paper in the torn margin. Of the several folds within the letter almost only the two along folds hardly visible. – Illustration

The Sequel “in the Case of von Langsdorf”

In the case of von Langsdorff the returned

Johann  Moriz  Rugendas  writes  on  Dec. 8, 1825

from Augsburg “To (?) a Highest Royal Government of the Upper Donau District”:

“ On the … notified requisition of the Imperial Russian Privy Councillor von Langsdorff through the Imperial Russian legation, concerning (?) contract, obligations, and detention of several drawings by the undersigned he has … to reply that he shall be able to defend and vindicate himself sufficiently in case of the mentioned charge, and before long – as soon his effects containing the proofs for his vindication and being already on their way from Paris arrive here – he will submit them. Remarking for now, Your Excellency, that his defence is based on ‘to have been dispensed from the contract by a letter of Mr. von Langsdorff even in the year 1822, having already handed over anything belonging to the expedition, and by the way reserve for myself to submit my cross action against the mentioned Mr. von Langsdorff at the proper place.’ … Moriz Rugendas. ”

1 page. 13⅜ × 8¼ in (34 × 20.8 cm). – On greenly tinted strong laid paper. – With blind stamp Kingdom Bavaria + fee stamp for 3 kreutzers. – Double fold.

Obviously the subject is related to Moriz’ original obligation to hand over any of his works to Langsdorff. In view of the annulment of the agreement some years ago it may be left aside if the “requisition” affects the in addition only temporary company in 1824 that according to his father’s letter above of Aug. 9, 1824, Rugendas joined “voluntarily and by means mostly acquired by himself”.

On this complex Diener 1994, p. 30, yet not knowing of the demission in 1822 writes quite not flattering to Rugendas:

“ He had made copies of all of his drawings and always resisted to show Langsdorff the works … By early November 1824 … (R.) had parted himself from the expedition … and took with him most of his works. While Langsdorff got nearly 79 leaves Rugendas took along more than 500 of his works. With this gain he embarked for Europe in May 1825. ”

More on this then in Diener 1998, p. 23/II.

Evidence-greeting from the Second Voyage from Valpareiso

The voyager can’t stop travelling and adds to the

autograph  documentation

about  the  first  voyage

an evidence-greeting from the second one:

Maurice  Rugendas  receipts  in  Valpar(eiso)  Sep. 3, 1840

in Spanish the receipt of an amount of money on 1 page of 4 × 8⅝ in (10.3 × 22 cm).

 

Despite of its length and scientific-artistic yield that second voyage remains in the shadow of the first one since except for 18 illustrations in Sartorius’ “Landscapes and Sketches of Native Life in Mexico” (1855) nothing had been published. Thus the

“ Picturesque  Voyage  in  Brazil ”

(ask for copy 14 of the facsimile edition now out of print!) of the early years into which the letters here allow such a valuably and familiar view remains  the  synonym for the voyager, painter, draughtsman, engraver, and lithographer

Johann  Moriz  Rugendas .

Who introduced by the Picturesque Voyage

“the  landscape  painting  into  the  field  of  ethnography”

as von Humboldt stated in his “Plant’s Geography”.

“ Unfortunately the artist made … no written records … not even kept a regular diary; what we know of him at all relies

only  on  the  letters  sent  home

from  time  to  time … ”

(Hyacinth Holland).

And  these  letters

were  really  scarce  on  market

at  all  times .

So the letters are correspondingly qualified by the Parisian Rugendas researcher Pol Briand on 21st August, 1999, as pieces of news compared with long-known knowledge:

“ … modern  sources ,

excepting  your  precious  contribution ,

do  not  yield  more  information . ”

On literature see the notes, especially nos. 1 + 11 as the catalogues raisonnés. For autumn 1999 planned a publication in São Paulo with, amongst others, the first publication of paintings (collection Thurn and Taxis) + drawings from Brazil as well as out of the letters introduced here to his 1st voyage, his Brazilian voyage pure and simple. Finally presenting Rugendas also as history painter.

Offer no. 28,302 / sold

Last updated May 31, 2017.

  1. Andrea Teuscher, Die Künstlerfamilie Rugendas 1666-1858 (catalog raisonné of the prints on occasion of the great Rugendas exhibition at Augsburg), 1998, p. 243.
  2. Pablo Diener, Rugendas – Imágenes de México/Bilder aus Mexiko, exhibition catalog 1994. – Short form: Diener 1994.
  3. Cf. Monteiro/Kaz, Expedição Langsdorff ao Brasil 1821-1829, 1988, vol. I: J. M. Rugendas.
  4. Such an agreement had been made Sep. 18th or 19th, 1821, in Lahr; cf. the color illustration of the copy-certification by the Augsburg town court of Oct. 1st/2nd, 1821, signed by son and father Rugendas in Diener [11] 1998, p. 124 + his specification of the date with Sep. 18th including source, p. 21/II. According to the same, 1994, p. 24, a consideration of 1000 francs per year, working material, living except for clothing had been arranged whilst “all works produced during the voyage (had to be handed over) to Langsdorff” and without his consent Rugendas was not allowed to publish anything.
  5. Obviously meant the Vienna landscape painter Thomas Ender (1793-1875) who in 1817 accompanied legation councillor Baron von Neveu in the also scientific entourage of Austrian archduchess Leopoldina on her way to Brazil to her husband who established in 1822 as Dom Pedro I. the Brazilian Empire. This entourage was joined by a natural scientific expedition, equipped by the Bavarian government, under Spix and Martius who where already mentioned as having brought the wanderlust to Munich. If Diener 1998, p. 24/I, refers to Ender as the “illustrador de la expedición de J. B. von Spix y C. F. P. von Martius” it has to considered altogether that his “poor health (compelled him even) after (just) one year to return from Rio de Janeiro” (cf. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie VI, 106, also, for Spix-Martius, XXXV, 231). The obviously faulty, additionally differing writing of “En...” by Rugendas implicating that he was not familiar with the name. In opposite Diener continues: “Es probable que Rugendas haya visto las illustrationes de Ender incluso antes de su viaje …”. And on the stylistic co-existence: “La conceptión artistica de estos estudios diffiere radicalmente del sentido coloristico de la obra austriaco Thomas Ender …”.
  6. Diener: Langsdorff’s “Facenda Mandioca” north of Rio. Obviously named after the bitter maniok or kassawa bush, Manihot utilissima Pohl.
  7. According to Diener before their return to Munich Spix and Martius were guests at “Manioca’s” in 1820.
  8. Contrary to the projects Rugendas undertook on his own in the meantime the Langsdorff expedition only started with this travel. Because of overdue means, so Diener 1994, pp. 26 ff., the rest of the entourage stayed at Manioca since their arrival in Rio in March 1822, undertaking only excursions in the Rio area. Still included some inaccuracies referring to details of Rugendas up to the inevitably incriminating misinterpretation that his connection with L. lasted until early November 1824 when Rugendas broke off the now freelanced accompaniment of the expedition. Actually and in intellectual accordance with the evidence of the letter here and the specification in his statement of Dec. 8, 1825, Rugendas resigned already in 1822 as also Diener 1998, p. 23/II, brings up to date: “En octobre de 1822, en el curso de una discusión con son jefe, manifestó la intención de abandonar la expedición …”. And by no means he had returned to Rio immediately after his newly resignation in November. As proven by his letter of May 12, 1825, he arrived there only March 29th after “an absence of 11 months”.
  9. History painter Clemens v. Z., since 1815 professor at the academy in Augsburg and as such already mentioned for a possible leaving to Munich under Aug. 9. 1824; since 1825 professor at the academy in Munich. Died only in 1869 he surpassed father + son Rugendas visibly even by this.
  10. According to the information by Pol Briand, Paris, of June 6th + August 14th , 1999, + November 19th, 2001, doubtless the French brig Le Faune (300 t., 8 c.) based at Rio under the command of Lieutenant Alexandre Parseval-Deschênes’ (1854 eventually promoted to Amiral de France, the highest of navy honours) which according to his personal report in the Archives de la Marine, Vincennes, served at the French navy’s Brazilian station from April 8, 1824, till May 13, 1826. “Anchored in Rio from April 23rd (1825), the brig sailed to Bahia on June 4th, arrived there on June 15th …” Due to the lack of wharfs and dockyards in Rio the ships then anchored at Guanabara Bay. Thus Rugendas may have known the ship’s name from hearsay only.
    Le Faune had orders to take over provisions from the Bayonnais – cf. 11 – returning to France and thus booked by Rugendas in Bahia, but due to a revision of her rig Le Faune set sails only belatedly and missed Bayonnais in Bahia which already set sails to Rio May 27th. For orders received at Bahia Le Faune immediately returned to Rio, too. Therefore Rugendas had to look for another passage, cf. 11.
  11. According to Pol Briand, at last especially on this January 26th, 2000, Rugendas’ may have known “la Bajonneuse” just from hearsay, too. It is about the Le Bayonnais built in 1817 as a tramp later converted for long range navigation and sailing the Atlantic. For it could not be the corvette La Bayonnaise since launched only June 6th, 1825, at Cherbourg. However, it cannot be the first neither though otherwise sounding fine as she really set sails to Europe far later where she arrived at Brest Dec. 13, 1825, only. At which time Rugendas already was in Augsburg again as his letter of Dec. 8 proves. “Parceval proposed to Rugendas to take him on Le Faune to Bahia, where he would be able to take passage back to Europe aboard Le Bayonnais. But this plan could not be completed.” However, “The dates of letters sent by the French Navy Commander and by the Consul in Rio prove that many other ships were available …”.
    This, so Briand Nov. 19th, 2001, was true in fact, but only after a 48-days stay on board of the merchant vessel Louise (259 t., 2 c.), based in Le Havre, under captain Le Bastier de Rivry, which slowly took over sugar and leather. Setting sails on August 3rd she arrived at Le Havre September 25th. Three days later he disembarked together with 6 other passengers. As personal guest of the captain and at his expense he does not appear in the reports.
  12. Pablo Diener, Rugendas 1802-1858 (monograph & catalog raisonné of the paintings and drawings), 2nd edition, 1998 (the 1st appeared 1997). – Short form: Diener 1998.