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The Rugendas Letters:
Johann Moritz Rugendas’
First Voyage to Brazil
The Sections of Cap Trafalgar
The First Prussian Maritime Atlas
Snitched — pursued — run away — arrested
married — bequeathed & half free
and finally released en gros
60 Years Slave Life in Brazil
in highly Rare Original Documents
Brazil – Slavery – Documents on Slavery in Brazil, Seven. Dec. 19, 1823 – Sep. 2, 1884. Autograph writing on paper (2) and lined paper (3) resp. as well as printed form filled out by hand (2). 8vo – sm. fol., 3 of which on double leaf.
Cultural-historically important block from the late period of one of the darkest chapters of the history of humanity. Its closure was “first suggested by the Quakers” (Meyer’s Konversations-Lexikon) and starting with the English parliament in 1788 it received increasing proscription, though it continued to make history for another hundred years, finding a bloody closure in North America in 1865 due to the civil war there while it took about another generation in the case of Brazil here. And even the Holy See had taken its stand against the slavery only in 1839 and in such a way 16 years after the 1823 first document here.
In their sequence given here present thematically wide-ranged Brazilian documents thus are
of a gradual break with slavery there , too ,
effected not least also by social and demographic changes. So according to a census already in 1872 about three quarters of all Africans and Brazilians of African descent were free: the widespread Portuguese practice of manumission – frequently through self-purchase as also documented below – as a means of getting workers for somewhat more responsible occupations like overseers, cowboys or muleteers as well as the fact that children of free mothers also were free had eroded slavery since long. Furthermore in the end employing white workers had frequently become cheaper than purchase and keeping of black slaves.
Their quite essential additional value
the present Brazilian unique items receive , however ,
by the fact that two years after the now final abolition of slavery in Brazil effected in 1888 by Emperor Pedro II – preceded by contracts with England of already 1826 + 1830 and the slave emancipation act of 1871 –
(Daniel Ruiz-Rosario, Grupo Capoeira Brasil San Antonio Texas).
So far the historical context of the present documents, described and quoted in detail in the following.
Rio de Janeiro , December 19, 1823
“Two days ago left this city, taking 20 stolen slaves, the mestizo Martinho … and two white comrades, one Joze Ramos and the other Antonio Joze de Vín (?) the most positve orders to apprehend the slaves and arrest the thieves, send these to this commissariat so that is proceeded with all the rigor of the laws … orders to all District Commanders and … to the commanders of the regiments where they may pass through, to be accomplished with diligence”. Copy of the Ordinance (“Copia da Portaria”) by Estevao Ribeiro de Rezende as or by the judge of Vila de Rezende. 4to. 1 page. Double leaf watermarked J Green / 1822 and with dry stamp with crown upper left. – Several folding traces almost utterly smoothed out as well as tiny worm holes especially in the white margin just as on the right, but without impairment of the writing.
If Estevao Ribeiro de Rezende – since November Secretary of the Empire in Rio de Janeiro – issued present ordinance in the currently here not provable function as Juiz Ordinario – judge at first instance, at the same time president of the municipal council – of the city of Resende or the latter indicates the writer of present copy written by one hand throughout has to be left undecided. Ribeiro (Lagoa Dourada 1777 – Rio de Janeiro 1856), Marquês de Valença, became foreign minister and governor of Rio de Janeiro the following year, 1827 Minister of Justice and 1826 member of the Senate, to which body he belonged until his decease.
District Serra , March 7, 1832
Notification of the “Prizidente e Maiz Veradores da Camara Municipal” by the Justice of the Peace Ignacio de Loyolla Pereira on the nomination of a “captain’o’weeds” (capitão do mato). Sm. fol. 1 page. – On lined paper watermarked “PF”. – Especially the paper margins at three corners weakly brownspotted. At the right lateral margin tiny 5 mm ink break off. – Upper right numbered by different hands “57” as well as with red color pencil larger “32”.
São Paulo , March 20, 1855
Printed circular filled out and signed in writing by Antonio Roberto de Almuiz (?) of the police secretariat of São Paulo on behalf of caption and hand over to the prison of the capital of slave André, belonging to Francisco de Almeida Prado from Itú, “of 20 to 30 years, born in the Congo, his color is of fine black, so the hair, too, good teeth, of medium frame, good build, large feet, small and somewhat contracted mouth …”. At the same time announcing the death of another slave and criminal belonging to Vicente de Almeida Prado in Vila da Limeira. 1 page on double leaf. – Two largely smoothed out horizontal folds. In the left white margin as well as in the white interspace tiny worm holes. The right outer margin with traces of moisture and just as backed as the paper loss reaching from there along the upper horizontal fold up to the text, which in its further course with isolated smaller losses impairs one line of printing minimally only.
Queluz , April 24, 1865
Certificate by the curate Antonio Paulino (?) Benjamin, that “In the May of the year thousand eight hundred and sixty-five and in this register of Queluz at the second hour of the afternoon … corresponding to the regulations … in the presence of the undersigned witnesses give their consent by word, in the face of the church … husband and wife Joaquim Jozé Pinto from Naçãe, slave (of the) João Pinto Moreira, with Margarida da Maria de Jezus, daughter of Francisco Caetano de Jezus and Delfina Maria de Jezus … And together receive the nuptial gifts”. Sm. fol. 1 page. – On lined writing paper watermarked “Al Masso”. – Smoothed vertical and (3) horizontal folds together with three strengthenings. – Especially on the back isolated, on the front weaker brownspots. Lower right in the white margin trace of moisture together with several tiny brownspots and two tear offs.
Barreiro , January 3, 1878
Letter of freedom by Graciano Francisco Teixeira for the half of mulatto slave Maria inherited from a relative “whose part and half is the sum of four hundred thousand réis”, which he has received at the same time in this connection from his brother-in-law Jose Roiz Pinto. Sm. fol. 1 page on lined double leaf. – With imperial revenue stamp about 200 réis. – Smoothed horizontal and (2) vertical folds which are somewhat browned especially on the back. – Isolated wormholes.
Casa de Detenção da Corte , June 8, 1878
Invoice by the royal prison about 6000 réis together with receipt note for first installment on the back for the owner of slave João imprisoned for ten days. Printed form filled out and signed in writing. 1 page. – Several smoothed folds. – Trimmed on the left under partial loss of the repeated vertical, ornamentally surrounded inscription “Casa de Detenção da Corte”. There, too, several tiny (stitching?) holes as well as two slightly larger backed ones. – Especially on the back somewhat fox or agespotted resp.
Fazenda da Onça em São José do Barreiro , September 2, 1884
Letter of liberation by which Françisco Ferreira Leite as beside “other belongings master and owner of the 72 slaves of both sexes nominated below” sets these free, “on the condition though to stay, the debt of gratitude amounting to their value in services or money … to my creditors, as much as the mortgages as the other credits (?) … are satisfied” and, if afterwards still services remain, “bind themselves in this case to pay their value in services or money to me or to my family … Therefore mentioned slaves get, after satisfaction of their values to my creditors, the full freedom …”. Sm. fol. 2 pp. – Lined paper.
In this thematic width of variation already of great charm of its own
and specifically just for Brazil’s history as globally also cultural and social historically of general importance, the papers present here gain even quite considerable additional value as – it may be repeated – due to the destruction of all relevant material ordered by the government in 1890 only
“ few documents about slavery in Brazil exist today ”
Thus the chance of an in this regard great collection enhancement by even a whole block of documents is obvious and proven.
Offer no. 28,681 / price on application