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The Rugendas Letters:
Johann Moritz Rugendas’
First Voyage to Brazil
1821-1825
 
marine niemeyer - since 1992 -

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Hamburg’s  Shipping & Trade

during  the  American  War  of  Independence

Regulation, in regard of Hamburg’s Trade and Shipping, during the War. On the order of One Highly Noble Council of the Imperial City of Hamburg. Given Hamburg September 18, 1778. In German. Hamburg, J. E. Piscator, 1778. With the city’s coat of arms held by two lions in woodcut on the title, large floral opening woodcut vignette as well as equal L(oco) S(igilli) mark. 4to. 12 pp. – BOUND WITH: Proclamation by Louis XVI of France in regard of the Shipping of Neutral Ships in Times of War. Translated from the French into German. Given Versailles July 26, 1778. Hamburg, J. E. Piscator, 1778. 4to. 15 pp. With the printed signatures of Louis and the Naval Secretary Antoine de Sartine, comte d’Alby. Glued brochure (renewed).

American War of Independence - Regulation, in regard of Hamburg’s Trade and Shipping, during the War

After the signing of alliance, trade, and friendship treaties between France and the young United States of America in Paris in February 1778 Louis XVI had declared war on England on July 10 the same year – just 16 days before present proclamation – which on the conclusion of peace in 1783 should earn France barely anything but high debts, however. Both the present two statutes standing in immediate also chronological connection with this declaration of war and therefore

remarkable  evidence

for both the development of international law as to the honoring of neutral powers as also of the importance even belligerent powers attached to the free global trade even about 200 years ago.

Ad I

Stating in three parts for shipowners & skippers, freighters & chargers as well as shipbrokers conditions and procedure for the neutral shipping during times of war, among which sea passports and other required ship’s documents as bills of sale, bills of lading, and muster-roll as well as skipper’s oath and determination of contraband:

“ With this publication We together exhibit the most respectful hope that the highest puissances will grant, in consequence of the set up treaties, the most gracefully given confirmations, or the subsisting Right of Neutrality, the merchants here a quiet and unimpeded trade, and an unimpeded shipping, and give to that end the orders to their men-of-war … the general wish and the hope are to the effect that, owing to the noblest well-meaning of the belligerent powers and the spread love for trade, the sentence, solidly established in the law of nations: that free ship makes free goods, will be followed everywhere towards trading places which in regard of contraband and otherwise observe a meticulous impartiality. ”

Ad II

Regulating in 15 sections the treatment of ships belonging to neutral or allied powers, especially obligations of identification, contraband & seizure as well as composition of the crew:

“ Since His Most Christian Majesty has himself be presented the old statutes which regard the shipping of neutral ships in times of war the decrees of these statutes have been confirmed by the Most Highly Same, and at the same time such have been appended which to His Majesty appeared most expedient to the maintenance of the rights of neutral powers, and to the furtherance of the interest of their subjects, without furthering by this the abuse of their flag, however. ”

French-German parallel text. – Title of I and the white final page of II dusted. Four ll. faintly tidemarked in the upper area up to within the text part, two ll. of which furthermore equally in the white lower margin. Smoothed little dog’s ears at the beginning above, later lower right. Otherwise fresh copy.
Offer no. 28,838 / EUR  368. / export price EUR  350. (c. US$ 455.) + shipping