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From the Archive
The Rugendas Letters:
Johann Moritz Rugendas’
First Voyage to Brazil
1821-1825

The Sections of Cap Trafalgar
The First Prussian Maritime Atlas
 
marine niemeyer - since 1992 -

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The  only  Monitor  of  her  Class

to  see  Action  during  the  American  Civil  War

“ The  Famous  Double-Turreted  Iron-Clad  Monitor ”

Monadnock, United States Iron Clad Battery. The monitor with two turrets laid down and launched 1862/63 at the Boston Navy Yard, Charlestown, Mass., and commissioned Oct. 4, 1864, running to the right in calm sea under slight clouds. Far left behind shadowy steamer with additional schooner rig. Partially colored chalk lithograph printed with 3 tone plates by Endicott & Co. (1864.) Inscribed: Lithographed & Published by Endicott & Co. 59 Beekman St. New York, otherwise as above together with further information on constructor, suppliers of engine & turrets as well as technical data. 14½ × 25¾ in (36.7 × 65.3 cm).

Named after Mount Monadnock in southern New Hampshire Monadnock had at a length of 259 ft 6 and a beam of 53 ft a depth of 12 ft 6 in and was propelled by 2 propellers. The engines were supplied by I. P. Morris Towne & Co., Philadelphia. She was constructed, however, by William L. Hanscom:

“ … Capt. William L. Hanscom … was educated to be a naval architect by his father, who was a prominent ship-builder … In time he succeeded to his father’s ship-yard and a large business, building some of the finest merchants afloat. His abilities attracted the attention of the Navy Department in Washington, and in 1853 he was appointed a Naval Constructor … He stood very high in his profession, and during the recent war, while he was at the Charlestown yard, he had 6,000 men at work under him, and frequently had 12 vessels in different stages of construction. While in Boston

he  constructed  the  famous  double-turreted  iron-clad  monitor  Monadnock ”

(New York Times, Sep. 5, 1881).

The wooden hull clad with iron plates, however, ultimately proved to be too weak for the two turrets supplied by Atlantic Works in Boston with their together four 15 inch guns.

Monadnock saw her first action during the Christmas bombardment of Fort Fisher at the entrance of Cape Fear River and – after General Benjamin F. Butler, notorious not least for General Order 28 issued by him in 1862 as commander of the occupation forces in New Orleans which practically put the women of the city at the mercy of the members of the occupation forces, broke off the attack – again in January when under a new command the fort was taken successfully. Engagements against Wilmington, Charleston and finally Richmond followed. Later she kept watch over CSS Stonewall in Havana.

Together with three further units she was transferred to the West Coast in October. After a voyage of nine months passing through the Strait of Magellan round South America with several port calls the squadron arrived at San Francisco and Mare Island Navy Yard in Vallejo by end of June 1866, where Monadnock was decommissioned immediately. During the voyage in the tropical latitudes stokers collapsed at temperatures of 120-140°F in the fire-room and only by extra pay and special rations of rum volunteers could be recruited for the work. 1874 eventually the wooden hull was broken up as part of a modernization program, however, the modernization became a completely new ship and only the name remained.

The  monitors  of  the  Union

revolutionized  the  construction  of  warships  radically .

Armed with but few guns mounted, however, in revolving armored turrets this type of ship developed by John Ericsson proved far superior to the broadside batteries of the ships of the line and frigates and completely displaced these in all fleets in the following decades. In battle for the first time independent of the ship’s course in addition the monitors were smaller and more maneuverable, an advantage which, however, would be given up at least partially in a quasi contrary development of ever larger, ever more heavily armored battleships, culminating in the Battle of Jutland only 50 years later.

Established 1830 by George Endicott (Canton, Mass., 1802 – New York 1848) and Moses Swett in Baltimore for the production and sale of prints the company was relocated the other year to New York. Meanwhile run by Endicott alone the younger brother and lithographer William E. (1816 Canton, Mass., 1851) had joined first as accountant and in 1845 became partner of then G. & W. Endicott. After his brother’s death he continued the company under his own name, which after also his decease would still continue as Endicott & Co. until 1886.

“ Intent  on  high  quality  E(ndicott).

employed numerous talented artists as lithographic draughtsmen and printers (like Charles Parsons, George Theodore Sanford, John Crawley Jr., Daniel T. Glasgow, James Irvine Glasgow, John Penniman, Francis D’Avignon, and Frederick Swinton) and by this made an important contribution to the development of lithography in New York ”

(Christine Rohrschneider, Allgemeines Künstlerlexikon XXXIII [2002], p. 543).

Due to the paper generally feebly browned and especially in the upper and lower margins as well as the right part of the sky a little foxed. Margins at top 6.7, laterally 4.5 and at the bottom 3 cm wide. In the left white margin somewhat creased and a backed tear 3.5 cm long. Two tiny tears in addition in the right margin. Irrespective of such traces of patina which should not be overvalued with respect to the general delicacy of these large and thereby additionally vulnerable sheets intended foremost for decoration and therefore wear an

as  large  as  fine & decorative  portrait  of  the  Monadnock

important  for  both  shipbuilding  and  final  stage  of  the  Civil  War .

Offer no. 28,931 / EUR  1690. / export price EUR  1606. (c. US$ 1839.) + shipping